April 2009


carrotCarrot Seed Production

P.W. Simon, USDA, ARS, Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 USA


Production of carrot seeds is a two-year project making it much more difficult than seed production of annual crops. Sound roots must first be produced (first year), these roots must be either harvested and carefully stored in a refrigerator or left in the field (if your winters are not too severe), these cold-treated (vernalized) roots must be grown and supplied with pollinating insects when flowering, and seed harvested. Carrot seed must be produced where no wild carrot (Queen Anne’s Lace) is growing.


Procedures

 

1. Grow vigorous plants.

Grow plants at the same time of year and the same way you usually would. Weak or diseased plants are subject to storage loss during vernalization and they set few seeds. Plants with pencil-sized roots may be large enough, but larger roots are preferable.

2. Vernalize roots.

Carrots require 6 to 8 weeks cold treatment (2 to 5°C) for floral induction. Cool growing conditions can reduce the cold storage requirement. Roots can be vernalized in two ways. If carrots are a summer crop in your area, you can simply leave roots in the field over your winter season if your climate provides at least 10 weeks of temperatures below 15°C but where temperatures are not so cold that roots will freeze to death. Early in the growing season plants should be thinned to at least 5 cm apart. Dead or dying leaves must be removed and tops can be cut back at your usual harvest time to 5 cm to reduce transpiration and covered with mulch if necessary. When warm weather resumes, remove mulch if necessary and leaves will regrow and after several weeks a seed stalk will appear. This is the “seed-to-seed” method of carrot seed production. Losses are often very high with this method and off-types of roots cannot be eliminated since roots are not harvested and visually examined. The “root-to-seed” method is more reliable. Harvest roots when you usually would and discard off types. Trim tops back to 2 to 4 cm, air dry until no surface moisture remains, pack in paper bags with an equal volume of wood shavings, and place paper bags in closed polyethylene bags at 2-5°C. Puncture plastic bags after several weeks when water droplets accumulate inside the polyethylene film. Better storage survival is realized if prior to refrigeration, lateral and fibrous roots are removed, soil is removed by washing gently, and senescing leaves are removed. Even with these precautions carrots are often very susceptible to pathogen infection during storage. In commercial production, roots are dipped in fungicide before vernalization but this practice is not advised without extreme caution.

3. Grow vernalized plants.

For the “root-to-seed” method, plant vernalized roots when you would plant seed in the spring, taking care to keep plants well-watered but not in standing water. Seed stalk development will be evident in 4 to 6 weeks. Control of microbial (Alternaria, Cercospora, aster yellows, motley dwarf) and insect pests (aphids, spider mites, lygus bugs) is essential to assure seed production. It is very difficult to produce carrot seed where warm humid climates favor microbial growth. Note: Carrot seed can only be produced true to type if wild carrot (Queen Anne’s Lace) is not growing nearby since wild carrot will intercross and yield white-rooted plants.

4. Pollination.

Pollination is best performed by introducing bees or flies for pollen transfer during the period of receptivity. Natural populations of bees and other insects will sometimes be adequate. As an alternative, pollen movement is possible by hand or brush but seed set will often be low. Within 4 to 6 weeks after pollination the developing seed turns brown. Harvest (before the seed shatters) into paper bags to dry completely. Late-season rains can reduce seed yield drastically. Remove spines from dry seed by rubbing. Seed is now ready to plant since carrot has no seed dormancy. Store dry seed refrigerated in a moisture-proof container.

By Dr. Mercola

pigletsAmerican health officials declared a public health emergency as cases of swine flu were confirmed in the U.S. Health officials across the world fear this could be the leading edge of a global pandemic emerging from Mexico, where seven people are confirmed dead as a result of the new virus.

On Monday April 27th, the World Health Organization (WHO) raised its pandemic alert level to four on its six-level threat scale,1 which means they’ve determined that the virus is capable of human-to-human transmission.

The number of fatalities, and suspected and confirmed cases across the world change depending on the source, so your best bet — if you want the latest numbers — is to use Google Maps’ Swine Flu Tracker.

Several nations have imposed travel bans, or made plans to quarantine air travelers2 that present symptoms of the swine flu, such as:

  • Fever of more than 100
  • Coughing
  • Runny nose and/or sore throat
  • Joint aches
  • Severe headache
  • Vomiting and/or diarrhea
  • Lethargy
  • Lack of appetite

Top global flu experts are trying to predict how dangerous the new swine flu strain will be, as it became clear that they had little information about Mexico’s outbreak. It is as yet unclear how many cases occurred in the month or so before the outbreak was detected. It’s also unknown whether the virus was mutating to be more lethal, or less.

Is This the Pandemic Health Officials Have Been Waiting for?

Folks, you can expect to see a lot of panic over this in the near future.  But I wouldn’t be too hasty — this isn’t the first time the public has been warned about swine flu. The last time was in 1976, right before I entered medical school and I remember it very clearly. It resulted in the massive swine flu vaccine campaign.

Do you happen to recall the result of this massive campaign?

Within a few months, claims totaling $1.3 billion had been filed by victims who had suffered paralysis from the vaccine. The vaccine was also blamed for 25 deaths.

However, several hundred people developed crippling Guillain-Barré Syndrome after they were injected with the swine flu vaccine. Even healthy 20-year-olds ended up as paraplegics.

And the swine flu pandemic itself? It never materialized. READ MORE…

anniston

Do we really want to eat food created by Monsanto and sprayed with Monsanto’s chemicals? Before we take another bite, a bit of research is in order.

This is the first sentence of the Monsanto Pledge, taken from http://www.monsanto.com:

“We want to make the world a better place for future generations.”

Really? This sounds so good. Environmentally responsible people looking out for the good of humanity. However, I believe that no matter what is said, we can judge the fruit of this company by its actions. Please read the following article from SourceWatch, and judge for yourself if Monsanto’s claim that “a healthy, sustainable environment is important to our business” is true, or just another Public Relations spin. READ MORE…
 

 

 

 

 

By Ingrid Blank

poisonInstead of blaming multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis on patients and their alleged non-adherence to the prescribed drug regime, it would be prudent to investigate and eradicate the underlying cause for multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis and other drug and antibiotic resistant infectious diseases first—namely commercial gene technology.

The disaster unfolding on a global scale is exactly the reason why the first genetic engineers called for a moratorium in the Asilomar Declaration of 1975. For decades, reputable and ethical scientists such as Dr. Mae Wan Ho and Prof. Joe Cummins have warned—substantiated by scientific evidence— that horizontal gene transfer, i.e. the transfer of genes by vectors (viruses and other infectious agents) designed to cross species barriers and thus enhancing the potential for creating new viral and bacterial pathogens, will result in the creation of superbugs and multi-drug resistant diseases.

According to these eminent genetic researchers, strains of bacteria “crippled” in the laboratory can survive in the environment and exchange genes with other organisms. DNA from dead and living cells persists in the environment and transfers to other organisms. 

Naked viral DNA (virus without its protein coat) is even more infectious and may well be taken up by mammalian cells including our own! In addition, viral DNA has been shown to resist digestion in the gut of mice, and enters the bloodstream to infect white blood cells, spleen and liver cells.

One such virus most commonly used as a promoter in genetic engineering is the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) which, due to its recombination hotspot, is prone to break and join with other DNA to integrate into the cell’s genome, which could activate host genes and lead to cancer. In addition, CaMV is closely related to the hepatitis B and HIV virus and due to its ability to propagate in plant and insect hosts after recombination may also recombine with related hepatitis B and HIV to create a most powerful disease in a large number of people consuming large numbers of virus genes incorporated into crop plants.

In the South African setting, the number of people at risk could not get any larger, since our government unilaterally decided without the people’s knowledge and above all prior consent, to grow our staple food (white maize) in genetically modified form without adhering to the precautionary principle, thus violating our constitutional rights to healthy food.

For the reasons described above, it is therefore imperative to demand immediate implementation of mandatory labeling of genetically modified food products in compliance with our constitutional rights of informed choice and consent, participation in decision-making processes and above all the individual’s right to bodily integrity, the latter being the most significant provision of the Nuremberg Code, which sets forth legal requirements for human experimentation, i.e. “voluntary consent of subject is absolutely essential.”

Likewise, the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights declares bodily integrity central to both human rights and human dignity and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights unmistakably declares that “no one shall be subjected without his free consent to medical or scientific experimentation.”

By deliberately ignoring the precautionary principle and refusing to implement mandatory labeling of GM products, this government allows its citizens to be used as guinea pigs, sacrificing the nation’s health for corporate greed. There is no such thing as “substantial equivalence.”

This phrase was coined by scientifically illiterate lawyers of the biotech industry and in 1992 written into law by G.H.W. Bush, who proclaimed GM plants to be “substantially equivalent” to their traditional counterparts and therefore did not need any special health safety study or testing. Ethical scientists and researchers consider this the biggest farce and fraud ever committed in the science field.

Contrary to what the corporate yarn spinners of biotech companies want the public to believe, not one single human safety study has ever been conducted. One does not need a Ph.D. in genetics to see the correlation between GMOs and the sharp rise in HIV infections and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis and other diseases. The decision-makers who keep violating our human right to bodily integrity by unleashing these toxins into our environment and food chain without our knowledge and consent must be held accountable.

Ingrid Blank is a South African of German descent who specializes in technical translations of medical treatises. This item originally appeared in Carotec’s TrueHealth newsletter. Carotec also sells extremely high quality vitamin supplements and natural health products. To find out more call Carotec at 1-800-522-4279. Write Carotec, Inc., P.O. Box 9919, Naples, FL 34101.

 

 

Not Copyrighted. Readers can reprint and are free to redistribute – as long as full credit is given to American Free Press – 645 Pennsylvania Avenue SE, Suite 100 Washington, D.C. 20003
By Barbara H. Peterson

upside-down-gardening

Our nation has been on a collision course with simple, natural living for quite some time. People in cities are crammed into high-rise apartment complexes, working 12 hours per day, eating fast food as a daily staple, and getting sicker by the minute. What will it take to reverse this trend? Well, unfortunately, we don’t seem to be able to do this on our own. It is taking an economic crash, the likes of which pales the 1929 fiasco to get us thinking about going back to the basics of growing our own food. The truth is, for far too many of us, if we don’t start developing some basic survival skills, we simply won’t eat.

So how do we go about growing some of our own food and eating healthy if we live in an apartment? It’s simple. Create a Freedom Garden. There are several ways to do this in a limited space. One way is to grow your veggies in pots indoors near windows, or with grow lights. Another suggestion is to use balcony space and create vertical gardens in which plants are started in containers and trained to grow upwards on trellises, poles, or anything that encourages upwards growth.

Hydroponics gardens are another option, and can be made cheaply and easily. These require no soil, just nutrients and water. You can have fresh, organic tomatoes, lettuce, cucumbers, squash, and many other veggies right at your fingertips.

Start your project with something easy like squash, lettuce, spinach, carrots, or beets. I live in the high desert, and these veggies grow outside like crazy here, even with the harsh weather and limited growing season. Squash, lettuce, and spinach do not require much depth, but carrots and beets do, so remember this when creating your gardening space.

To get your Freedom Garden started, make sure that you get only Heirloom seeds. GMO (genetically modified) or hybrid seeds will not work if you plan to harvest seeds for the next crop. Once your veggies ripen, choose the best plants from your crops, and harvest the seeds for your next planting from them. If you plant GMO seeds, it is likely that your harvested seeds will not be viable. The same goes for hybrid seeds. Heirloom seeds are the seeds that go back for hundreds of years, and are pure. Their genetic makeup has not been tampered with through artificial genetic modification techniques, or cross breeding. Choosing only the best plants for your seed harvesting will ensure that future crops yield the best results. Also, be sure to gather extra seeds to create your very own personal seed bank so that you have something to fall back on just in case.

In short, one of the things that we cannot do without is food. To stay alive, we need to eat. If the shelves go bare, having a Freedom Garden in your apartment or backyard will be worth its weight in gold. So pick a gardening method, whether it is by indoor or outdoor containers, or hydroponics, choose your seeds wisely, and start planting for food freedom. This is the way to stay alive and healthy in today’s world.

Here are some handy links for starting your Freedom Garden:

1) How to Harvest and Store Vegetable Seeds

2) Where to Buy Heirloom Seeds in Bulk

This article appears courtesy of www.totalhealthbreakthroughs.com

Survival

Source: End Times Report
By Miles Stair

 

While we all want to do our best to prepare for a coming crisis, and many of us realize the city is perhaps the worst place to live, very few people are really prepared to pack up the old Winnebago and head for the hills. Most Americans, whether they’re aware or not, are going to stay in the cities.

This is not a hasty decision for most people. Most of us depend on the city for our livelihood, and we can be better prepared by continuing to live in the city, earn a good income, and make preparations for exiting the city at the appropriate time or by staying in the city and living off existing supplies.

This special report explains some of the most critical dangers of living in a city and presents some solutions to surviving them. If you are one of the people who has decided to stay in the city, you’ll benefit greatly from this information.  READ MORE…

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